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  1. Week 8 17 items
    In week 8 you will be introduced to foundational principles of NMSK examination, documenting patient records, clinical reasoning and outcome measures (goniometry and manual muscle testing). Please find your directed reading below. The reading below will provide you with a basis for what will be covered within your tutorial and practical sessions. The readings marked ESSENTIAL - is required reading before your classes for that week to ensure participation and ability to follow the tutorial and practical classes. Readings marked RECOMMENDED will enhance the knowledge and competence you have gained from the essential readings and will ensure you are developing a good depth of knowledge in the topic area. Readings marked BACKGROUND are further information that will contribute further to your knowledge in this area and can be used as references for the future but are not necessarily essential to read in the current week. If you feel like reading more about certain topics then always feel free to explore the LRC's database.
    1. NMSK examination 17 items
      1. Subjective and Objective Assessment 10 items
        1. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

          Book Essential Read chapter 2: Subjective Examination (from page 3-34). This book is available as an electronic copy or a hard copy in the library. This should be completed before your classes in Week 8.

        2. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

          Book Essential From chapter 3: Physical Examination Read from page 35-37 (stopping at physical examination step by step) for a brief overview of the physical examination. Read from page 44 (Functional Ability/Physical Performance Tests) to page 48 (as far as combined movements) Read from page 53 (muscle tests) to page 63. Feel free to read more of this chapter however much of the content will be covered later on. This should be read before your classes in Week 8.

        3. The Flag System - Physiopedia

          Webpage Recommended In the reading above you will notice that on p19 there is a table that looks at types of clinical flags. Have a look at this webpage to supplement your understanding on clinical flags. This is a good webpage to refer back to if you need a quick reference.

        4. Assessment Techniques 6 items
          1. Musculoskeletal assessment: joint range of motion and manual muscle strength - Hazel M. Clarkson 2000

            Book Recommended You will be expected to demonstrate use of a goniometer in measuring range of motion of various regions of the body, in the module practical viva and on clinical placement. After the week 8 practical class you should practice this. There are many texts in QMU LRC which you may use to learn how to measure joint range of movement using a manual universal goniometer. Clarkson (2000) is just one of these texts. CLARKSON, H. M. 2000. Musculoskeletal assessment. joint range of motion and manual muscle strength. 2nd ed. London: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. This can be found in the library as a hard copy

          2. Active Range of Motion: Shoulder 3/12/2015

            Audio-visual document Recommended Use these videos to help you with practical techniques.

          3. Shoulder Passive Range of Motion (PROM) 18/4/2018

            Audio-visual document Recommended Use these videos to help you with practical techniques.

          4. The Goniometer 27/3/2012

            Audio-visual document Recommended Use these videos to help you with practical techniques.

          5. Reliability of knee joint position sense measurement: a comparison between ... 2016

            Article Recommended Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week.

          6. Reliability and concurrent validity of knee angle measurement: Smart phone app versus universal goniometer used by experienced and novice clinicians - Steven Milanese, Susan Gordon, Petra Buettner, Carol Flavell 12/2014

            Article Recommended Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week.

      2. Outcome Measures 6 items
        1. Outcome Measures - Physiopedia

          Webpage Essential Read this during week 8 to understand the importance and purpose of an outcome measure in clinical practice.

        2. Patient-reported outcome measures in advanced musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice: a systematic review - Orna Fennelly, Catherine Blake, François Desmeules, Diarmuid Stokes 03/2018

          Article Recommended Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week.

        3. A comparison of electronic and manual dynamometry and goniometry in patients with fracture of the distal radius and healthy participants - Caroline E. Plant, Nicholas R. Parsons, Alison T. Edwards, Hayley Rice 01/2016

          Article Recommended Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week.

        4. STarT Back Screening Tool - Physiopedia

          Webpage Background Example outcome measure used in clinical practice. Familiarise yourself with different outcome measure that can be used in clinical practice. You may see these used in clinical practice. Also, when looking at case studies throughout the module you can consider when they could be utilised.

        5. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) - Physiopedia

          Webpage Background Example outcome measure used in clinical practice. Familiarise yourself with different outcome measure that can be used in clinical practice. You may see these used in clinical practice. Also, when looking at case studies throughout the module you can consider when they could be utilised.

        6. DASH - Disabilites of the arm, shoulder and hand

          Document Background Example outcome measure used in clinical practice. Familiarise yourself with different outcome measure that can be used in clinical practice. You may see these used in clinical practice. Also, when looking at case studies throughout the module you can consider when they could be utilised.

      3. Recording patient data 1 item
        1. Prior to your classes, view the powerpoint presentation on "Documenting patient assessments and compiling a patient problem list".  You will find this in the week 8 folder on the module Hub.

  2. Week 9 6 items
    In week 9 you will be introduced to principles of increasing muscle strength, power and endurance. Please find your directed reading below. The reading below will provide you with a basis for what will be covered within your tutorial and practical sessions. The readings marked ESSENTIAL - is required reading before your classes for that week to ensure participation and ability to follow the tutorial and practical classes. Readings marked RECOMMENDED will enhance the knowledge and competence you have gained from the essential readings and will ensure you are developing a good depth of knowledge in the topic area. Readings marked BACKGROUND are further information that will contribute further to your knowledge in this area and can be used as references for the future but are not necessarily essential to read in the current week. There are numerous physiotherapy texts that will provide you with comprehensive information on the topics covered this week, so if you feel like reading more then feel free to explore the LRC's database.
    1. Therapeutic exercise 6 items
      1. Principles of musculoskeletal treatment and management: a handbook for therapists 2018 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 4: Function and Dysfunction of Muscle READ ONLY pages 86 (muscle and proprioception) to p91 (classification of muscle function) pages 95 (skeletal muscle dysfcuntion) to p104 (production of symptoms)

      2. Principles of musculoskeletal treatment and management: a handbook for therapists 2018 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 5: Principles of muscle and tendon treatment.

      3. Therapeutic Exercise - Carolyn Kisner, Lynn Allen Colby, John Borstad 2017

        Book Essential This reading gives you information about precautions and contraindications when applying resistance to muscles. Read the box 6.12 on page 203 (general precautions) and the section on contraindications on page 206/207

      4. INTEGRATION OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES INTO A REHABILITATION PROGRAM 2011

        Article Recommended Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week.

      5. Considerations of the Principles of Resistance Training in Exercise Studies for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review - Claire Minshull, Nigel Gleeson 09/2017

        Article Recommended Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week.

      6. Therapeutic Exercise Foundations and Techniques : Foundations and Techniques - Carolyn Kisner , and Lynn Allen Colby 2012

        Book Background Read chapter 6 (from page 157): Resistance Exercise for Impaired Muscle Performance. This is a really good and informative chapter on resistance exercise. It is also a very long chapter. Use this for further reading or reference if more information is required.

  3. Week 10 28 items
    This week you will be introduced to the physiology of pain and examination of the upper limb. Please find your directed reading below. This will provide you with a basis for what will be covered within your tutorial and practical sessions. The reading marked ESSENTIAL is required reading before your classes for that week to ensure participation and ability to follow the tutorial and practical classes. Readings marked RECOMMENDED will enhance the knowledge and competence you have gained from the essential readings and will ensure you are developing a good depth of knowledge in the topic area. Reading marked BACKGROUND are further information that will contribute further to your knowledge in this area and can be used as references for the future but are not necessarily essential to read in the current week. There are numerous physiotherapy texts that will provide you with comprehensive information on the topics covered this week, so if you feel like reading more then feel free to explore the LRC's database.
    1. Pain 8 items
      1. Principles of neuromusculoskeletal treatment and management: a guide for therapists - Nicola J. Petty, Nicola J. Petty 2011 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 8: principals of pain management

      2. Pain Mechanisms - Physiopedia

        Webpage Essential For a brief overview on the subjective qualities of different pain mechanisms and pain types to help with your clinical reasoning, read this physiopedia page. You don’t need to read the clinical vignettes.

      3. Retrain Pain Foundation

        Website Recommended This is useful resource for patients, but I would also encourage you to complete the course, as it will give you some simple explanations you can use with your patients.

      4. Understanding Pain in less than 5 minutes, and what to do about it! 15/1/2013

        Audio-visual document Recommended This simply explains chronic pain, and is a very useful resource to provide to patients

      5. Pain Reframed | Physical Therapy | Pain Management: 29: Caring Deeply and Dropping Your Ego with Dr. Peter O’Sullivan

        Webpage Recommended Podcast with Professor Peter O'Sullivan (38 minutes long) There are lots of pain podcasts, so feel free to listen to whatever you like. This podcast, released in October 2017, is highly recommended.

      6. Explain pain supercharged: the clinician's manual - G. Lorimer Moseley, David S. Butler 2017

        Book Background This is an excellent resource for understanding pain. You are not expected to read the whole book this week, but you are encouraged to read this at your own pace. There are numerous resources available for enhancing patient and clinical understanding of pain, that you will be directed to later in the module.

    2. Shoulder 11 items
      There is a wealth of information and literature available on shoulder pain. This is a list of directed essential, recommended and background reading, though the list is not exhaustive. You are encouraged to research the literature frequently to remain up to date with current evidence, and ultimately use your clinical decision making skills to help you decide what is best evidence based practice.
      1. Bess :: Patient care pathways and guidelines

        Webpage Essential Here you will find the British Elbow and Shoulder Society published guidelines on shoulder pain. Click on specific conditions for more information about pathology, diagnosis and management.

      2. Shoulder pain - NICE CKS

        Webpage Essential These are the NICE guidelines for the management of people with shoulder pain. You will find links and references to some interesting research articles within.

      3. NHS Lothian shoulder pathway

        Webpage Recommended This is the shoulder pathway used by NHS Lothian physiotherapists.

      4. Rotator cuff related shoulder pain: Assessment, management and uncertainties - Jeremy Lewis 06/2016

        Article Recommended This paper describes a shoulder symptom modification procedure for assessing and managing shoulder pain. It is not essential to memorise but it is important to note that there are several classification and management systems available. A recent study has suggested that this system is not reliable, and therefore it is up to you to decide whether or not it will be clinically valuable to your practice.

      5. Psychological factors are associated with the outcome of physiotherapy for people with shoulder pain: a multicentre longitudinal cohort study - Rachel Chester, Christina Jerosch-Herold, Jeremy Lewis, Lee Shepstone 02/2018

        Article Recommended Read the abstract and discussion of this paper to get a feel for the psychosocial factors that can impact on shoulder pain.

      6. Combining orthopedic special tests to improve diagnosis of shoulder pathology - Eric J. Hegedus, Chad Cook, Jeremy Lewis, Alexis Wright 05/2015

        Article Recommended You will begin to understand that shoulder "special" orthopaedic tests are only helpful under some circumstances. There are hundreds of special tests available, and you are not expected to learn all of them!

      7. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for the diagnosis, assessment and physiotherapy management of contracted (frozen) shoulder: quick reference summary - Nigel C.A. Hanchard, Lorna Goodchild, Jackie Thompson, Tracey O’Brien 2012-6

        Article Recommended As evidence based practitioners, you are expected to critically analyse the literature in order to inform your clinical practice. There is an abundance of research available, so it is up to you to use your research and clinical skills to decide what literature will inform your practice.

      8. PE #021 Shoulder pain, rotator cuff tendinopathy and frozen shoulder with Dr Jeremy Lewis - physioedge

        Webpage Background Podcast with Jeremy Lewis (>1 hour). This is a very interesting discussion about shoulder pain - feel free to listen in your own time.

      9. Classification of Shoulder Pain - Physiopedia

        Webpage Background This describes some of the proposed classification systems for shoulder pain.

      10. Frozen shoulder contracture syndrome – Aetiology, diagnosis and management - Jeremy Lewis 02/2015

        Article Background Within this module we will be searching and using literature to support our knowledge and to underpin our learning. Articles will be used in tutorial classes as discussion aids. Start to have a look at literature related to the topics each week

      11. ShoulderDoc by Prof. Lennard Funk - Shoulder Symptoms, Treatment, Research & Education

        Website Background This is a useful website that describes some common (and not so common) shoulder conditions and surgical options.

    3. Elbow 6 items
      1. Elbow pain: a guide to assessment and management in primary care - Mustafa Javed, Saadia Mustafa, Simon Boyle, Fiona Scott 11/2015

        Article Essential This is an overview of common elbow complaints seen in primary care. It is up to you to use your independent learning time to read up on the aetiology of specific conditions and physiotherapy management options.

      2. Tennis elbow - NICE CKS

        Webpage Essential This are NICE guidelines for the management of tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylalgia. You will often find references to original articles and research papers within guidelines. Tennis elbow will link to your learning of tendonopathies. Can you apply this knowledge to what you know about golfers elbow?

      3. Are Passive Physical Modalities Effective for the Management of Common Soft Tissue Injuries of the Elbow? - Sarah Dion, Jessica J. Wong, Pierre Côté, Hainan Yu 01/2017

        Article Recommended This paper evaluates the effectiveness of passive treatments for soft tissue elbow pain. As evidence based practitioners, you will be expected to consult research to help inform your clinical practice.

      4. Early mobilisation for elbow fractures in adults - Paula Harding, Tshepo Rasekaba, Lorena Smirneos, Anne E Holland 15/06/2011

        Article Recommended This article is from the Cochrane research group. This will link with what you will know and learn about fractures.

      5. ▶ Lateral Elbow Pain with Dr Leanne Bisset by MACP

        Audio document Background This is a podcast with Dr Leanne Bisset about lateral elbow pain (30 mins). While you listen, it would be an idea to jot down any terms or concepts that are unfamiliar to you and use your independent study time to research these. This will help you to link your learning about tendonopathies later in the course.

      6. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome - Physiopedia

        Webpage Background This is a referenced web page describing cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow. You are not expected to learn every test and treatment. Rather, you should build on your knowledge of anatomy, physiology, assessment and other learning to start forming patterns of recognition. This will link with your learning about nerve pathologies.

    4. Wrist and hand 3 items
      1. Distal Radial Fractures - Physiopedia

        Webpage Essential This referenced web page gives a good overview of distal radius fractures, which you will probably encounter on clinical placement in Orthopaedic and Outpatient practice.

      2. Hand Disorders | The British Society for Surgery of the Hand

        Webpage Recommended Hand physiotherapy is often a specialised area of therapy. However you may come across some conditions, such as distal radius fractures, carpal tunnel syndrome, and deQuervains syndrome, working in primary or secondary care. Have a look at the hand disorders and hand injuries sections of this website for an overview of patient information for a range of hand conditions.

      3. Investigation of the effect of conservative interventions in thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis - Lucia Bertozzi, Kristin Valdes, Carla Vanti, Stefano Negrini 23/10/2015

        Article Recommended This is a systematic review and meta analysis of conservative management of thumb arthritis. Try to evaluate the quality of this article. You can often find references to useful papers from systematic reviews.

  4. Week 11 9 items
    This week you will be introduced to accessory movements and joint mobilisations for peripheral joints. Please find your directed reading below. This will provide you with a basis for what will be covered within your tutorial and practical sessions. The reading marked ESSENTIAL is required reading before your classes for that week to ensure participation and ability to follow the tutorial and practical classes. Readings marked RECOMMENDED will enhance the knowledge and competence you have gained from the essential readings and will ensure you are developing a good depth of knowledge in the topic area. Reading marked BACKGROUND are further information that will contribute further to your knowledge in this area and can be used as references for the future but are not necessarily essential to read in the current week. There are numerous physiotherapy texts that will provide you with comprehensive information on the topics covered this week, so if you feel like reading more then feel free to explore the LRC's database.
    1. Peripheral joint mobilisations 5 items
      1. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read Chapter 3 pages 100-106 (stopping at movement diagrams) this describes accessory assessment of joints.

      2. Principles of musculoskeletal treatment and management: a handbook for therapists 2018 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read Chapter 3 pages 51-67. Principles of Joint Treatment.

      3. Integrating osteopathic approaches based on biopsychosocial therapeutic mechanisms. Part 1: The mechanisms - Gary Fryer 2017-5

        Article Recommended Although presented as 'osteopathic' approaches, this is an interesting exploration of many of the techniques physiotherapists may use.

      4. Integrating osteopathic approaches based on biopsychosocial therapeutic mechanisms. Part 2: Clinical approach - Gary Fryer 2017-5

        Article Recommended Although presented as 'osteopathic' approaches, this is an interesting exploration of many of the techniques physiotherapists may use.

      5. Reconceptualising manual therapy skills in contemporary practice - Martin Rabey, Toby Hall, Clair Hebron, Thorvaldur Skuli Palsson 06/2017

        Article Background A critical exploration of manual therapy in contemporary practice.

    2. Tissue Healing and Therapy 4 items
      1. Physical agents in rehabilitation: an evidence-based approach to practice 2018

        Book Essential Read chapter 3 "Inflammation and tissue repair" from page 25.

      2. Massage Therapy: Does it Work?

        Webpage Recommended A critical exploration of massage therapy

      3. PRICE needs updating, should we call the POLICE? - C M Bleakley, P Glasgow, D C MacAuley 03/2012

        Article Recommended

  5. Week 19 5 items
    This week is a self directed learning week, aimed at consolidating and enhancing your knowledge on chronic pain. There is a lot of information available on pain and pain management - you will need to make sure the information you use in your clinical practice is soundly based in best available evidence. Here you will find a wide range of resources, however there are many other resources that you can use to supplement and increase your knowledge of the subject. Try to complete this before Week 20 to keep you on track. If you are unable to complete it all keep returning to it over the course of the semester.
    1. Chronic pain 5 items
      1. Management of chronic pain in adults

        Webpage Essential Read the following within this document: a. Page (ix) – What is Chronic Pain? b. Page (x) – The Scope of the Problem – read the Key Points box – it is important that you note the part that stresses that different people respond to the same condition/injury in very different ways and that not all people with chronic or persistent pain are chronically disabled. Can you think of someone you know who has chronic pain but who is very active in all aspects of life? c. Page (xi) – Key Principles – can you see how the key principles and factors to consider in patient assessment can be mapped to different aspects of the biopsychosocial model of pain? d. Page (xii) - What are the Most Common Causes of Chronic Pain? The key point from this page is: if someone has no formal diagnosis (or clearly defined organic or pathological or physical cause), it does not mean that their pain is, ‘all in their head’ or ‘psychosomatic’ or does not exist. e. Page (xiii) – ‘Flags’ – you will have seen this before – just a reminder. f. Page (xiv) – Types of Pain – the important point here is that pain can persist after the nociceptive process has ended. g. Page (xv) – just read the Key Points h. Page 8 – Section 5: the Multidisciplinary Approach to Pain Management in Primary Care i. Page 10 – Section 5(ii) – the Role of Physiotherapy j. Page 16 – Self-management and Support Groups k. Page 20 - Pain Management Programmes l. Page 33 – Specialist Services – the Pain Management Clinic m. Optional – you may be interested in browsing some of the Appendices, which show a range of assessment tools for pain measurement/assessment and the Glossary on page 52 may be useful

      2. Know Pain | Pain management

        Website Recommended Have a look on this website for excellent pain information, including a very useful education booklet for chronic pain in the resources section.

      3. Greg Lehman

        Website Recommended This is another excellent pain workbook that is useful for AHPs as well as patients

  6. Week 20 11 items
    In week 20 you will begin to look at assessment and treatment of the lumbar spine, including rehabilitation options. Please find your directed reading below. The reading below will provide you with a basis for what will be covered within your tutorial and practical sessions. The readings marked ESSENTIAL - is required reading before your classes for that week to ensure participation and ability to follow the tutorial and practical classes. Readings marked RECOMMENDED will enhance the knowledge and competence you have gained from the essential readings and will ensure you are developing a good depth of knowledge in the topic area. Readings marked BACKGROUND are further information that will contribute further to your knowledge in this area and can be used as references for the future but are not necessarily essential to read in the current week. If you feel like reading more about certain topics then always feel free to explore the LRC's database
    1. Lumbar spine diagnosis/presentations 4 items
      Below are a few resources on lumbar spine presentations/conditions that you may come across. You are expected to continue to explore presentations that you may come across within a musculoskeletal setting. Please feel free to use other resources to enhance your knowledge.
      1. TASK: Whilst doing your directed reading this week and beginning to familiarise yourself with lower back assessment and management, consider the following aspects.

        1. Research common musculoskeletal lower back diagnosis/presentations and become familiar with there signs and symptoms.
        2. What possible interventions can be used to treat lower back conditions.

        Try to complete this before attending the Seminar class in Week 20. You may want to take some personal notes for revision purposes.

      2. Back Pain: Lumbar Disc Injury 22/9/2011

        Audio-visual document Recommended This is a short video on lumbar disc herniation.

      3. Biomechanics of the spine: basic concepts, spinal disorders and treatments 2018

        Book Recommended Read Chapter 19: Scoliosis p345-361 for information on the condition

      4. Atlas of common pain syndromes - Steven D. Waldman, Steven D. Waldman 2019

        Book Recommended Read Chapter 82: Radiculopathy p317-320 and Chapter 84: Spinal Stenosis p324-327 for information on these conditions.

    2. Low back pain 6 items
      1. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 12: examination of the lumbar region, from page 327. You are not expected to learn combined movements or the McKenzie classification system, but feel free to read and absorb as much as you want. There will not be time to cover everything in your practical classes – remember that a lot of your learning will come from your practical placements. Please ensure you read this before any classes in Week 20.

      2. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

        Website Essential Since 1999, NICE have provided the NHS, and those who rely on it for their care, with an increasing range of advice on effective, good value healthcare, and have gained a reputation for rigour, independence and objectivity. This is always a good place to start when looking to provide evidence for your assessment and management. Other similar guidelines exist worldwide. It is good to become familiar with these.

      3. Unraveling the Complexity of Low Back Pain - Peter O'Sullivan, Joao Paulo Caneiro, Mary O'Keeffe, Kieran O'Sullivan 11/2016

        Article Essential

      4. Rehabilitation management of low back pain – it’s time to pull it all together! - Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme, Marc Olivier Martel, Anand Joshi, Chad Cook 10/2017

        Article Recommended

      5. Medical Screening for Red Flags in the Diagnosis and Management of Musculoskeletal Spine Pain - Phillip S. Sizer, Jean-Michel Brismée, Chad Cook 03/2007

        Article Recommended Red flags

      6. Red flags to screen for malignancy and fracture in patients with low back pain: systematic review - A. Downie, C. M. Williams, N. Henschke, M. J. Hancock 11/12/2013

        Article Recommended Red flags

    3. Before Week 21 Tutorial: After your classes in Week 20, try writing a problem list for the LBP case study and formulate 2 short term and 2 long term goals.

  7. Week 21 16 items
    In week 21 you will continue to look at assessment and treatment of the lumbar spine, including rehabilitation options. Please find your directed reading below. The reading below will provide you with a basis for what will be covered within your tutorial and practical sessions. The readings marked ESSENTIAL - is required reading before your classes for that week to ensure participation and ability to follow the tutorial and practical classes. Readings marked RECOMMENDED will enhance the knowledge and competence you have gained from the essential readings and will ensure you are developing a good depth of knowledge in the topic area. Readings marked BACKGROUND are further information that will contribute further to your knowledge in this area and can be used as references for the future but are not necessarily essential to read in the current week. If you feel like reading more about certain topics then always feel free to explore the LRC's database
    1. Neurodynamic Assessment - Physiopedia

      Webpage Essential Focus on lower limb tests – SLUMP, PKB and SLR

    2. Reconceptualising manual therapy skills in contemporary practice - Martin Rabey, Toby Hall, Clair Hebron, Thorvaldur Skuli Palsson 06/2017

      Article Recommended

    3. Critical Appraisal of Literature 4 items
      In this section there are some resources about how to critically appraise literature. We will be doing this with the literature you have found on treatment and management options for LBP within the Seminar session. Have a look at the CSP site to introduce yourself to this concept and the CASP checklists are useful for guiding you through. There are some other links to improve your understanding.
      1. Critical appraisal | The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy

        Webpage Essential Introduction to the concept of critical appraisal and why we need to do it.

      2. CASP Checklists - CASP - Critical Appraisal Skills Programme

        Webpage Essential these can be used to help critically appraise literature. These are useful throughout your physiotherapy career not just as a student. You may want to bring some blank checklists to the seminar session with you.

      3. Step-by-Step Guide to Critiquing Research - Michael Coughlan, Patricia Cronin, Frances Ryan 2007

        Article Recommended Some other resources to help with critical appraisal

      4. The Research Critique Process

        Website Recommended Some other resources to help with critical appraisal

    4. Outcome Measures 3 items
      Here are some more outcome measure used within back pain management. It is good to become familiar with what they measure.
      1. Roland‐Morris Disability Questionnaire - Physiopedia

        Webpage Recommended Take a look at the Roland-Morris questionnaire on the physiopedia website. Click on the link to open the questionnaire itself and reflect on the items that patients are asked to consider.

      2. Oswestry Disability Index - Physiopedia

        Webpage Recommended Take a look at the Oswestry questionnaire on the physiopedia website. Click on the link to open the questionnaire itself and reflect on the items that patients are asked to consider.

      3. STarT Back Approach - Physiopedia

        Webpage Recommended You will probably have seen this one before.

  8. Resources for Spinal Conditions 18 items
    There are a lot of resources available on spinal conditions and I have added some here for extra reading.
    1. What low back pain is and why we need to pay attention - Jan Hartvigsen, Mark J Hancock, Alice Kongsted, Quinette Louw 06/2018

      Article 

    2. Psychosocial factors in low back pain: letting go of our misconceptions can help management - Mary O’Keeffe, Steven Z George, Peter B O’Sullivan, Kieran O’Sullivan 28/08/2018

      Article 

    3. Non-specific low back pain - Chris Maher, Martin Underwood, Rachelle Buchbinder 02/2017

      Article 

    4. Psychosocial factors in low back pain: letting go of our misconceptions can help management - Mary O’Keeffe, Steven Z George, Peter B O’Sullivan, Kieran O’Sullivan 28/08/2018

      Article 

    5. Low back pain: a call for action - Rachelle Buchbinder, Maurits van Tulder, Birgitta Öberg 06/2018

      Article 

    6. Musculoskeletal pain and exercise—challenging existing paradigms and introducing new - Benjamin E Smith, Paul Hendrick, Marcus Bateman, Sinead Holden 20/06/2018

      Article 

    7. Potential Mechanisms Underlying Centralized Pain and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions - Olivia C. Eller-Smith, Andrea L. Nicol, Julie A. Christianson 2018-2-13

      Article 

    8. The pain revolution - Lorimer Moseley

      Audio-visual document 

  9. Week 23 8 items
    Cervical spine, Management strategies and measures of disability (pain), Goal setting and pacing
    1. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies – Mechanisms, diagnosis and management - Annina B. Schmid, Robert J. Nee, Michel W. Coppieters 12/2013

      Article Essential

    2. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential Read chapter 6 Examination of the upper cervical region - p168-188 and p192-196.

    3. Neurodynamic Assessment - Physiopedia

      Webpage Essential Focus on upper limb neural provocation tests

    4. Factors predicting outcome in whiplash injury: a systematic meta-review of prognostic factors - Pooria Sarrami, Elizabeth Armstrong, Justine M. Naylor, Ian A. Harris 2017-3

      Article Essential

    5. Neck pain - non-specific - NICE CKS

      Webpage Essential If you click on the link and select: Diagnosis, and ‘View full scenario’ you will be able to view all relevant information. Do the same for: management, view full scenario Note: you do not need to read the detail of medicines for prescription nor do you need to read about management of Acute Torticolis (many patients with this condition find that it resolves within a few days and they do not present to physiotherapy for treatment.

  10. Week 24 13 items
    There are no face-to-face classes during this consolidation week. Therefore the time you would spend in practical classes should be spent on directed and self-directed learning.
    1. Heat & Cold 2 items
      1. Electrophysical agents Heat & Cold 23/10/2013

        Audio-visual document Essential Listen to the narrated lecture: Heat / cold (21 mins)

      2. Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice - Tim Watson 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Follow up reading: Read Chapter 9: "Heat and cold application" starting on page 125

    2. Shortwave 4 items
      1. Electrophysical agents Shortwave Diathermy 23/10/2013

        Audio-visual document Essential Listen to the narrated lecture: Shortwave Therapy (14 mins)

      2. Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice - Tim Watson 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Follow up reading: Read Chapter 10 "Pulsed and continuous shortwave therapy" starting on page 137

    3. Ultrasound 2 items
      1. Therapeutic ultrasound 3/11/2015

        Audio-visual document Essential Listen to the narrated lecture: Therapeutic Ultrasound (18 mins)

      2. Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice - Tim Watson 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 12: "Therapeutic Ultrasound" starting on page 179.

    4. TENS 1 item
      1. Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice - Tim Watson 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 16: "Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation" Page 253- 289

    5. Key Concepts in Electrotherapy

      Webpage Background The Tim Watson website is an excellent resource for electrotherapy literature. Please read this article, but also feel free to have a look at more resources available on his website www.electrotherapy.org

    6. Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice - Tim Watson 2008 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended Please read any other sections you feel may be useful to you in: Watson (2008) Electrotherapy: evidence-based practice. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. This could include: Chapter 11- Low-intensity laser therapy Chapter 15- Neuromuscular and muscular electrical stimulation Chapter 17- Interferential

    7. Electrotherapy for neck pain - Peter Kroeling, Anita Gross, Nadine Graham, Stephen J Burnie 26/08/2013

      Article Background You don’t have to read this in detail, get a feel for the evidence

    8. Fracture Healing - Solomon, L., Warwick, D., Nayagam, S., Solomon, L.

      Chapter  Module: PM098 (Scanned Extract) - Read pages 327-239

  11. Week 25 3 items
    1. NICE CG161 Falls in older people: assessing risk and prevention

      Webpage Essential Read as far as page 15 (stop at section 1.2)

    2. Osteoporosis - Illnesses & conditions | NHS inform

      Webpage Essential Read the introductory page on osteoporosis with associated links on this NHS Inform web-site

  12. Week 26 8 items
    This week you will be introduced to the knee, build upon principles of rehabilitation and practice of neuromuscular co-ordination, power training and plyometrics, and principals and practice of late stage rehabilitation, functional exercises and return to work
    1. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

      Book Essential Read chapter 15 "Examination of the knee region" from page 389

    2. Therapeutic Exercise Foundations and Techniques: Foundations and Techniques - Carolyn Kisner, Lynn Allen Colby 2012 (electronic resource)

      Book Recommended Briefly read this chapter for some conservative and surgical management options for common knee conditions. Please note that post surgical rehabilitation will depend on your local department policy and guidelines.

    3. Diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for common knee disorders: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis - Simon Décary, Philippe Ouellet, Pascal-André Vendittoli, Jean-Sébastien Roy 01/2017

      Article Recommended

    4. The Knee Resource | Trustworthy Evidence Based Information

      Website Background This is a good online resource for the knee.

  13. Week 27 17 items
    Tendonopathy and The foot & ankle
    1. Tendonopathy 12 items
      1. Is tendon pathology a continuum? A pathology model to explain the clinical presentation of load-induced tendinopathy - J L Cook, C R Purdam 01/06/2009

        Article Recommended This is the original Cook & Purdham tendon continuum paper

      2. Tendinopathy Continuum Explained - YouTube

        Audio-visual document Recommended Video explaining tendinopathy continuum

      3. The Pain of Tendinopathy: Physiological or Pathophysiological? - Ebonie Rio, Lorimer Moseley, Craig Purdam, Tom Samiric 2014-1

        Article Essential

      4. Tendonopathy management 8 items
        Briefly read these articles to get a flavour of the current evidence of physiotherapy management of local tendonopathies. Remember new evidence is emerging all the time so it is up to you to keep up to date with the research.
        1. Understanding mechanisms to improve exercise interventions in tendinopathy - Peter Malliaras 09/2017

          Article Essential This is a good summary of the different exercise interventions in tendinopathy with further references to trials in the text, including those linked below

        2. Isometric exercise induces analgesia and reduces inhibition in patellar tendinopathy - Ebonie Rio, Dawson Kidgell, Craig Purdam, Jamie Gaida 10/2015

          Article  Briefly read to get a flavour of treatment options for local tendinopathy

        3. Heavy Slow Resistance Versus Eccentric Training as Treatment for Achilles Tendinopathy - Rikke Beyer, Mads Kongsgaard, Birgitte Hougs Kjær, Tommy Øhlenschlæger 07/2015

          Article Recommended Briefly read to get a flavour of treatment options for tendinopathies

        4. Eccentric exercise: acute and chronic effects on healthy and diseased tendons - Michael Kjaer, Katja M. Heinemeier 06/2014

          Article Recommended "Eccentric exercise: acute and chronic effects on healthy and diseased tendons"

        5. Physiotherapy management of lateral epicondylalgia - Leanne M Bisset 2015

          Article Recommended Briefly read to get a flavour of some treatment options for local tendinopathy

        6. Gluteal Tendinopathy: A Review of Mechanisms, Assessment and Management - Alison Grimaldi, Rebecca Mellor, Paul Hodges, Kim Bennell 2015-8

          Article Recommended

        7. High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up - M. S. Rathleff, C. M. Mølgaard, U. Fredberg, S. Kaalund 06/2015

          Article Recommended Briefly read to get a flavour of some treatment options for tendinopathy

    2. The foot & ankle 5 items
      1. Musculoskeletal examination and assessment: a handbook for therapists, Volume 1 2017 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Read chapter 16: examination of the foot and ankle (from page 418)

      2. Effect of unsupervised home based proprioceptive training on recurrences of ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial - M. D W Hupperets, E. A L M Verhagen, W. v. Mechelen 09/07/2009

        Article Recommended Ankle Proprioception

      3. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay - Pau Golanó, Jordi Vega, Peter A. J. de Leeuw, Francesc Malagelada 2010-5

        Article Recommended This is a good pictoral revision of ankle anatomy

      4. Plantarfasciitis - Physiopedia

        Webpage Recommended Referenced article on plantarfasciopathy

  14. Investigation of the effect of conservative interventions in thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis - Lucia Bertozzi, Kristin Valdes, Carla Vanti, Stefano Negrini 23/10/2015

    Article Essential This is a systematic review and meta analysis of conservative management of thumb osteoarthritis. Draw on your critical analysis abilities to evaluate this article.